In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend.
Another consideration when designing questions is whether to include open-ended, closed-ended, partially open-ended, or rating-scale questions for a detailed discussion refer to Jackson, Advantages and disadvantages can be found with each type:. Open-ended questions allow for a greater variety of responses from participants but are difficult to analyze statistically because the data must be coded or reduced in some manner. Closed-ended questions are easy to analyze statistically, but they seriously limit the responses that participants can give.
Jackson, , p.
In addition to the methods listed above some individuals also include qualitative as a distinct method and archival methods when discussing descriptive research methods. It is important to emphasize that descriptive research methods can only describe a set of observations or the data collected. It cannot draw conclusions from that data about which way the relationship goes — Does A cause B, or does B cause A?
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Nothing could be further from the truth. Jackson, S. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Jamie Hale, MS. Jamie has written seven books and co-authored one.
Find help or get online counseling now. By Jamie Hale, M. Observational Method With the observational method sometimes referred to as field observation animal and human behavior is closely observed. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which research can be used in real-life situations. Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Survey Method In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires.
It can show the path taken which led to specific results being generated. Those observations make it possible for others, in similar circumstances, to potentially replicate the results discovered by the case study method. It is a way for researchers to turn their opinions into information that can be verified as fact because there is a proven path of positive or negative development.pring.info/components/ta-chloroquindiphosphat-bestpreis.php
Descriptive Research: Definition, Characteristics, Methods, Examples and Advantages
Singling out a specific incident also provides in-depth details about the path of development, which gives it extra credibility to the outside observer. Case studies that are chosen well will be relevant to everyone who is participating in the process. Because there is such a high level of relevance involved, researchers are able to stay actively engaged in the data collection process.
Participants are able to further their knowledge growth because there is interest in the outcome of the case study. Most importantly, the case study method essentially forces people to make a decision about the question being studied, then defend their position through the use of facts.
The case study method involves more than just interviews and direct observation. Case histories from a records database can be used with this method. Questionnaires can be distributed to participants in the entity being studies.
6.5 Observational Research
Individuals who have kept diaries and journals about the entity being studied can be included. Even certain experimental tasks, such as a memory test, can be part of this research process.
Researchers do not need to be present at a specific location or facility to utilize the case study method. Research can be obtained over the phone, through email, and other forms of remote communication. Even interviews can be conducted over the phone.
Case Study Method in Psychology | Simply Psychology
That means this method is good for formative research that is exploratory in nature, even if it must be completed from a remote location. Compared to other methods of research, the case study method is rather inexpensive.
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The costs associated with this method involve accessing data, which can often be done for free. Even when there are in-person interviews or other on-site duties involved, the costs of reviewing the data are minimal. The case study method puts data into a usable format for those who read the data and note its outcome. Although there may be perspectives of the researcher included in the outcome, the goal of this method is to help the reader be able to identify specific concepts to which they also relate. That allows them to discover unusual features within the data, examine outliers that may be present, or draw conclusions from their own experiences.
Every person has their own unconscious bias. That means the real-time data being collected may be based on the results the researcher wants to see from the entity instead. By controlling how facts are collected, a research can control the results this method generates.
Case study method
The information collection process through the case study method takes much longer to collect than other research options. That is because there is an enormous amount of data which must be sifted through.
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Participants can also influence outcomes by given inaccurate or incomplete answers to questions they are asked. Researchers must verify the information presented to ensure its accuracy, and that takes time to complete. Case study methods require the participation of the individuals or entities involved for it to be a successful process.
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That means the skills of the researcher will help to determine the quality of information that is being received. Some participants may be quiet, unwilling to answer even basic questions about what is being studied. Others may be overly talkative, exploring tangents which have nothing to do with the case study at all.
Related steps of case study method in psychology
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