- qualitative dissertation research questions.
- essay questions for the book of job?
- jerome fisher program in management and technology essay.
However, in Indonesia's reforestation and regreening program, Calliandra species play a prominent role. Although Calliandra is not planted for timber production, it is an important multipurpose tree that provides valuable products for household use. Therefore, I feel this workshop is very important, and I hope we can exchange our experiences to make the genus Calliandra more beneficial to farmers here in Indonesia and around the world. The participants gathered here at this workshop, as you may know, come from different countries and scientific disciplines.
Working together, I am confident you can achieve the workshop's objectives. Ladies and gentlemen, I would like to use this opportunity to explain about our policy on sustainable forest management.
Our forests are cultivated not only for the present generation but also for future generations. We are very concerned with the sustainability of our tropical forests. Therefore, our policies basically reflect ITTO guidelines and criteria both at the national and forest management unit level. Recently, the Ministry of Forestry issued guidelines for sustainable natural forest management which reflect ITTO's guidelines and criteria.
These are steps forward in our march toward the achievement of Sustainable Year Ladies and gentlemen, my comments would be incomplete without mentioning Indonesia's plantation establishment and forest plantation schemes. These plantations will be used for pulpwood and timber production.
The planting target for each year is , hectares. The sixth five-year development plan of Indonesia takes into account the problems of human resources and land tenure. The idea of "forest for people," as declared in the World Forestry Congress in , brought into focus the concepts of social forestry, agroforestry, the HTI-Transmigration Program which included local people in industrial tree plantation establishment, the establishment of villages next to forestry concessions HPH Bina Desa , and alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture.
In these activities we promote the term of "Pohon Hutan Penghidupan Manusia" trees for human life by promoting multipurpose tree species MPTs for small farm use. In the future, these activities will include the development of Calliandra and other MPTs that meet the needs of the local people. Therefore, this workshop is in line with our national programs and is an excellent opportunity to integrate smallholder agroforestry systems with conversion of Imperata grasslands.
The research agenda which prioritizes this work is also important. We need to use every opportunity to share our ideas and solve our common problems, hence I deeply appreciate your concern and commitment. Last, but not least, I wish this workshop success in achieving its objectives. Thank you. Botany and Taxonomy of Calliandra Calliandra taxonomy and distribution, with particular reference to the series Racemosae Duncan Macqueen.
The genus Calliandra comprises species primarily from Central and South America, though with a few species found in North America, two in continental Africa, nine named from Madagascar, and two from the Indian subcontinent.
The species are usually shrubs or small trees, although some are herbs or large trees. The genus is distinguished by the apical dehiscence of its pods and by flowers displaying numerous, long filaments joined at the base. The flowers are arranged either in axially heads or in terminal racemes. Pollination is primarily by moths or bats. The species occur over a wide range of habitats from humid lowland forest to highland scrub, with some occurring in arid plains. The divisions within the genus are discussed with particular reference to the series Racemosae, a well defined Central American group.
Taxa within the Racemosae are documented, with an assessment of taxonomic rank and interspecific and infraspecific variation. One notable species in the Racernosae is Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner, which is widely planted in agroforestry systems in the humid tropics. Barneby, pers. The center of diversity of the genus is in Brazil, in the state of Bahia, with a secondary center of diversity in southern Mexico. The species are usually shrubs or small trees, although a few are herbs or large trees.
Synthesis of p-aminobenzoic acid from p-toluidine
They frequently inhabit the forest understory, often along river banks, although a few species reach the canopy e. While many species are found in humid lowland forests, a number occur in montane regions e. Don Benth. Species are most commonly unarmed, although a few notable exceptions occur e.
Several features clearly define the genus Calliandra within the Mimosoideae. First, the fruits are all straight or slightly curved and, with the exception of Calliandra harrisii Benth, are piano-compressed pods with thickened margins. Pods of all species dehisce explosively from apex to base. This type of dehiscence is only found outside of Calliandra in a few Australian Acacia species Bentham , Maslin , Calliandropsis Hernandez and Guinet , Desmanthus balsensis J.
Contreras Luckow , Alantsdilodendron Villiers , Luckow , Gagnebina Lewis and Guinet , Pseudprosopis Gunn in the Mimoseae, and Zapoteca, Ingeae Hernandez and is then associated with very different floral or pollen characteristics. The inflorescences of Calliandra are all capitate to some degree, with flowers arranged either in axillary heads or terminal particulate racemes. The calyx is cup shaped, and the corolla is campanulate and actinomorphic with the petals valvate in bud. The stamina! In some species e. In most species, however, a nectariferous disk is present at the base of every flower.
In the species that have been studied, the principal pollinators are moths and bats, although Arroyo notes that Calliandra schultzei flowers are zygomorphic and clearly adapted for hummingbird pollinators. The leaves of Calliandra species are bipinnate with one to many pairs of pinnae; the petiole and rachis are usually without nectariferous glands a feature common to some other genera in the Ingeae, e.
The leaves are pinnate in one species only, Calliandra hymenaeodes Persoon Benth. In Calliandra there are one to many pairs of opposite and sessile leaflets. The genus Calliandra was first described by Bentham in and was placed in the Ingeae tribe of Mimosoid legumes Bentham ; see Elias , Nielson The Ingeae tribe was delimited by its valvate calyx in bud and its high numbers of stamens more than 10 fused at the base.
Bentham delimited the genus Calliandra based on its uniform pod dehiscence and floral characters. Despite some superficial similarities with Zapoteca, including the dehiscence mode of the fruit and the fact that Zapoteca species were placed by Bentham in Calliandra, the two genera are not closely related in other aspects, such as pollen structure Guinet and Hernandez In fact, on the basis of its pollen, Zapoteca is closer to the genera Cojoba, Marmaroxylon, Zygia, and Harvardia than to Calliandra Guinet and Rico A cladistic analysis of the Ingeae, however, has placed Calliandra and Zapoteca as sister genera Grimes The distinct nature of the pollen of the American Calliandra species has generated speculation that the genus should be placed in a distinct tribe or moved to the tribe Mimoseae Nevling and Elias , Niezgoda et al.
Guinet and Hernandez have noted that Bentham, in describing Calliandra parviflora Benth. They also noted the fungiform stigma type, which sets Calliandra apart from the Ingeae, whose other genera have a cup-shaped stigma. Recent observations have suggested, however, that C. Moreover, four of the six genera that share Calliandra's distinctive pod dehiscence mode are from the Mimoseae tribe. The genus Calliandra is, however, quite unusual on several counts and cannot be readily placed within any tribe. Baretta Kuipers remarked upon the specialized wood anatomy of both Archidendron and Calliandra, whose possession of banded parenchyma sets them apart within the Ingeae.
Pedley suggested a link with the Acacieae in the genus Acacia, a link supported by some of Guinet's pollen data , Chappill and Maslin went further in strongly suggesting that the Acacieae and Ingeae should be amalgamated and that Calliandra is closely united with Acacia sensu strictu rather than with genera of the Mimoseae. Further work will be needed to clarify the generic relationships within the Ingeae, Mimoseae, and Acaceae.
Bentham first subdivided Calliandra into five more series based on leaf and inflorescence characters: Macrophyllae, Laetevirentes, Pedicellatoe, Nitidae, and Racemosue Bentham , ; Table 1. The name Calliandra was conserved over Anneslia Salisb. While many subsequent authors followed this arrangement, Britton and Rose divided Calliandra into 21 smaller series based on pinnae numbers; leaflet numbers, shape, and texture; inflorescence form; pubescence; and habit. Guinet , , and Guinet and Hernandez suggested that the genus could be divided into three groups based on pollen characteristics: the first type with grained acalymmated polyads uniformly sculptured restricted to the Asiatic and Madagascan species , the second type with grained acalymmated polyads with unusual lens-shaped areas restricted to Bentham's series Laetevirentes , and the third type with eight-grained calymmated polyads acalymmated in the two African species present in the remaining species.
Hernandez consequently separated out the series Laetevirentes into a separate genus, Zapoteca. Barneby in prep. The series Racemosae was delimited by Bentham by its many pairs of pinnae and microphyllidous leaflets; its elongated, racemose, particulate inflorescences; and its compact flower heads on sub-umbels.
All of the members described were from Central America and Mexico, except for Calliandra parviflora Benth. The latter species is unusual in the group, however, because of the branching of its particulate inflorescence; the presence of subtending leaves; and the few, filamented, tiny flowers. In Britton and Rose's treatment of the genus, the Racemosue was renamed Houstonianae, with an additional two closely related monospecific series: Palmeranae and Wendlandianae. Houstonianae contained 17 species including the four of Bentham's original Racemosae, excluding only C. Within this large series, however, are a small group of Central American species with microphyllidous leaflets, elongated particulate racemes, small deciduous stipules, and distally pink or red stamina!
It is this group of species which corresponds to Bentham's original Racemosae and which Macqueen and Macqueen and Hernandez in prep. The Racemosae according to Macqueen and Hernandez excludes both C. Smith J. The latter species is excluded on the grounds of its macrophyllidous leaves, fewer leaflets, foliaceous stipules, and white androecium.
In Barneby's work in prep. In practical terms, C. Where sympatry occurs, the species rarely hybridize, further supporting their designation as separate species. Chamberlain pers. Thus, while there is no major disagreement over the fact that these taxa occur, it seems prudent at this stage to maintain their specific status. The Racemosae is set apart from other series primarily by the unusually elongated inflorescences coupled with consistent habit and leaf, flower, and pod anatomy.
Endang nurhayati trobe thesis
The species are all shrubs or small trees with angulose or rounded branches. The inflorescences are borne on terminal branches held above or to the side of the bulk of the foliage. The inflorescences are elongated particulate racemes to 40 cm long with at least five nodes from which pedunculate floral sub-umbels develop, and without subtending leaves. During nocturnal flowering, pollinators are attracted to the entire inflorescence, which is made particularly prominent because of the nocturnal folding of the leaves.
Individual flowers are usually borne on pedicels and have a cup shaped calyx with deltate teeth and a campanulate corolla, at the base of which is a nectariferous disk. The stamens are numerous and are red or pink distally and white or pink basally or very rarely white throughout.
Eight polyads per anther are produced, each comprising eight pollen grains, the basal cell having a sticky beak to attach to the pollinator.
Endang Nurhayati Trobe Thesis
The single ovary within each flower usually contains ovules. The hair covering of the ovary is again a useful diagnostic tool in delimiting species. While all the fruit of species in the Racemosae are piano-compressed, straight or slightly curved pods dehiscing from the apex, there are significant differences in the texture of the intermarginal areas, which vary from hard-membranous to ligneous and from flat to markedly undulating. Seeds all have a 90 percent pleurogram. The leaves of species within the Racemosae are bipinnate, jugate, with many pairs of microphyllidous leaflets.
Occasionally the number of pinnae pairs decreases toward the inflorescence, exceptionaly being reduced to a single pinnae pair.
Related endang nurhayati trobe thesis
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved