In countries like India where women suffer from serious discrimination, whatever affects the household will worsen women's position. Thus, the process of liberalization, privatization, and globalization will put the clock back for women and for the poor in general. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Didn't get the message?
Find out why Add to Clipboard. Add to Collections. Only six per cent of women are in the organized sector, where the conditions of work are little better than for the unorganized. For the latter the remuneration is precarious, the work insecure, tedious, tiring and psychologically damaging. Technological changes have adversely affected job opportunities for women in agriculture and manufacturing.
Urban women workers are now concentrated in food-processing, garment, construction and other small-scale industries, while low-caste women have to work as sweepers, scavengers and domestic servants. Few working women are provided with facilities such as hostels, creches and legal advice. The fact that in modern India roughly three-quarters of its female citizens are illiterate speaks volumes.
The last three decades have witnessed a rise in the absolute number of highly educated and skilled women, but the total is still pitiful when compared with the millions of illiterate women who operate permanently on the margins of subsistence. For those who do have more than basic training and education, the biggest openings are in teaching and nursing.
By , nearly , women were employed in education, out of a total of three million, although as in most other countries the proportion becomes particularly unfavourable as one moves up into higher education 28, out of , Email required. If a mother is educated, it is her first duty to treat the male and female child equally and in the same way, so that the girl does not develop a complex from the beginning. On her travels to rural areas, the Begum said village women had stated to her " is our year.
Though brought up in a sheltered lifestyle, the Begum said her father was liberal for that period. Many times talking the Begum out of doing things he disapproved of, she did manage to persuade him to let her meet her husband, when her marriage was arranged. A long way and time from that sequestered background now, the Begum stated, "Women must fight for their rights but I don't approve of what is happening in the West-such as nudity and all that.
They go to swim and bathe along with men and say 'We are just like men.
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After all, the Indian woman has an image to maintain. I don't like it when women say: 'Men crushed us so we now are going to crush them. Known for her broadminded attitude, the Begum created a stir in the capital when she exhibited three of her paintings in the International Art Exhibition of Women Artists. One of these was considered extremely bold in its theme and execution, a relief in thick paint and oyster shell medium, which depicted the physical core of the female body. India Today, Dec.
However, Begum Abida said, "I don't consider it daring. It's just a fact, that's all. I am really a shy person and this was the first time I exhibited anything like that. I wanted to many times, but then I kept it back.
Indian women: Yesterday, today and tomorrow
I thought people might not like it. Not the critics. They should be used to all this, but some of the people.
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Returning to the subject of the status of women, the Begum said, "I don't think women are equal physically, but mentally they are. May be that is psychological too. Sometimes, we produce women who are as strong as men. This has been put in their mind, 'She's a girl, she can't do that,' so you start thinking that way yourself.
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If you have to pick up a heavy chair, you might call someone to help you. But, when you are forced to do it, you do it alone. Man can never produce a child. Motherhood is itself sublime, even a man cannot snatch that. In that sense, women are superior," the Begum smiled. Though many laws were passed during International Women's Year, education is still lacking.
Most of the limitations a women faces are in her own psychological make-up and not in the community as such. Having herself reached this position without facing any obstacles, Mrs. Pupul Jayakar said it was difficult to understand how women could take the back seat just because their husbands preferred it that way. Pupul Jayakar stated she was totally against the notion of women concentrating just on housework and children. The brain does not recognize any differences, why should the men be allowed to?
In her opinion it is necessary for a woman to be both mentally and physically satisfied which she cannot be if she is chasing the man's shadow all along.
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The fact that career women do not make good housewives was ridiculed by Mrs. Jayakar, who pointed out, "Career women are normally much more efficient-they do not have the time to dawdle. So they do everything twice as fast and twice as methodically. In her opinion self enquiry is a basic necessity. It is a sense of insecurity which allows her to be trampled upon," she said. Even things like abortion and their being on the pill is decided by the man, and Mrs. Jayakar said the time was ripe for women to decide everything for themselves.
Jayakar pointed out, "With the power they have in the vote they can transform the world. In her opinion, demonstrations should be held against dowry, child marriage and the numerous other norms which are degrading to women. They should first be able to convince themselves of their capacity, before they try to convince men.
The only way they can do this is by being mentally and economically independent. The fact that men often consider it unfeminine for a woman to work and not be financially dependent on him brought an indignant reply from Promilla. If it is just looking pretty and acting helpless, it is degrading to be feminine. A woman can be intelligent, independent and be feminine at the same time, just as she can be a career woman and a good housewife. Besides, it's time everything was not done according to the desires of a man.
Only then will we stop being considered second rate citizens, which we definitely are not. Promilla stated. While the men are being trained to use these machines, women are not considered intelligent enough. With the result that many women are out of jobs and have no means to earn their livelihood. In her view a social education, is the answer. She said it was not the government who is at fault, but the educated women, who are doing very little for themselves and nothing for the illiterate. On being pushed into matrimonial alliance by her grandmother, Savitri Nigam retorted, "If you are so fond of marriage, get married yourself.
I have taken a pledge not to get married till the country is free. Laxmi Narain Agnihotri who was her teacher, educated them at the impressionable age of eleven into becoming freedom fighters.
Savitri said, "It was something out of this world to be taught by Gandhi. While absconding from the police, during the struggle for independence Savitri took shelter in the house of a prostitute. Immediately after this experience one of her ambitions has been to abolish prostitution but she stressed, "Rehabilitation facilities should be made before rescuing anyone.
Her encounter with women prisoners at Malaka made her aware that women are the victims of our social system. Having been tortured by mother-in-laws and husbands many women had been driven to murdering them. Savitri blamed their pitiable condition completely on the Hindu Code Bill which did not allow Indian women to divorce husbands. She discovered that the conditions of widows were deplorable but the state of women who had been deserted was even worse. Firmly believing that as long as Indian women are exploited the country can never be strong, Savitri began taking a keen interest in social legislation.
She joined Parliament in after risking her life in when a Jana Sangh party member attempted to stab her but was apprehended in time by Shanti Bhushan. Savitri believes that it is virtually impossible to be a good social worker without being a devoted housewife. She said it came with education and that is what should be organized for Indian women. Stressing the importance of women having a career, Savitri said, "A self-centered person cannot be self-sufficient because that person lives like a parasite. Padmavati, 57, cardiologist and recipient of the Padma Bhushan said, "In many countries including India, women have deliberately not been sent to school or have been given only rudimentary education.
Men are largely to blame for this state of affairs. Padmavati pointed out, "Many weaknesses of women are a myth of the man's imagination. The doctor recited an old proverb in Tamil, "By the age of ten you get rid of a girl, even if you have to give it to a Harijan. Padmavati stated, "It is biological to want to get married, but to cater one's whole life to marriage, is being misguided.
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