Results and discussion
The bacteria use reduced sulfur as an energy source for the fixation of carbon dioxide. Unlike all other known biological communities on Earth, the energy that forms the base of these deep-sea communities comes from….
The organization of life on Earth can thus be seen as being driven by a natural second-law-based reduction between the energy of…. The latter mode of metabolism refers to life-forms that use inorganic materials ammonia [NH 3 ], methane [CH 4 ], or hydrogen sulfide [H 2 S] combined with oxygen to generate their energy.
Chemosynthesis | MIT OpenCourseWare | Free Online Course Materials
For geologically short periods of time, organisms may live off a finite supply of material; however, for any long-term continuance of life, a dynamic cycling of matter involving complementary types of organisms must…. No evidence that they were animals exists. In addition to the Ediacarans, acritarchs, and other abundant microfossils, clear evidence for pre-Phanerozoic, or Precambrian, life includes the massive banded-iron formations BIFs.
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Most BIFs date from 2. Like plants and algae on land and in shallow waters, the vent microbes are the primary producers in their food web and are eaten by larger animals. Bottom feeders like limpets graze on microbial mats up to three centimeters thick, and suspension feeders like mussels feed on bacteria floating in the water.
Other animals, like the Yeti crab, feed on microbes that grow on their surfaces. Some bacteria live as symbiotic partners in the tissues of larger host organisms, like the giant gutless vent tube worms , which are fed by the microbes in exchange for providing them with shelter.
Background: Chemosynthetic Ecosystems
Methanopyrus kandleri is a heat- and salt-loving species of Archaea that makes its home on the chimney walls of smokers. It harvests energy from hydrogen gas and releases methane, a process known as methanogenesis.
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Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic to most animals, including people. However, animals at hydrothermal vents have special biochemical adaptations that protect them from hydrogen sulfide. One of these hydrogen sulfide-making species is Pyrolobus fumarii or "fire lobe of the chimney" , that was first isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
Pyrodictium abyssi are disc-shaped cells that grow attached to networks of hollow tubes that resemble tree roots. Green sulfur bacteria are unique among hydrothermal vent bacteria because they require both chemical energy from hydrogen sulfide and light energy to survive.
Green sulfur bacteria contain chlorosomes, organelles that are so efficient at harvesting light that green sulfur bacteria can grow at much lower light intensities than other light-requiring microbes. There is no sunlight at hydrothermal vents, and instead they capture energy from the weak radioactive glow emitted from geothermally heated rock. Extremophiles might have been among the earliest life forms on earth and have possible uses in industry. Skip to main content.
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